The Indian National Congress party is a major and broadly based party in India, this party was founded in the year of 1885. It was the first modern nationalist movement to appear in the British Empire in Africa and Asia. In the year 1920 congress became the principle leader of the Indian Independence movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi with over 15 million members and 70 million participants.
Congress is generally considered to be on the centre-left of Indian Politics and it is a secular party, its social policy is based upon the Mahatma Gandhi’s principal of Sarvodaya, to the establishment of all sections of the society, in which the improvement of the lives of socially criticized and economically underprivileged people. This party primarily recommended the social liberalism, claiming the right to be free from religious rules, secularism, well balanced individual liberty and social justice.
From 28 to 31 December 1885, Indian National Congress conducted its first session with the leadership of Allan Octavian Hume, retired Civil Services Officer. Viceroy Lord Dufferin approved Hume to organize the first meeting in Bombay and that session was attended by 72 delegates. That time Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first President of the Congress. The popular representatives were the newspaper editor and social reformer Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Dadabhai Naroji, ICS Officer William Wedderburn, Pheroz Shah Mehta of Bombay Presidency Association, Justice K.T Telang, Dinshaw Wacha, Journalist and activist Gooty Kesava Pillai, N.G. Chandravarkar, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, Behramji Malabari, and P. Rangaiah Naidu of the Madras Mahajana Sabha. This was the Pre-Independence description of Indian National Congress.
The Indian National Congress became the leading party in the country after the Indian Independence in 1947. The first general elections held in the year of 1952 and the party clear to power in the national Parliament and most other states legislatures. After 1977 this was defeated by Janata Coalition and again it returned to the power in the year of 1980 and ruled till 1989. That time at the state level the Party’s rivals were including Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (CPIM) (Marxist) and other various regional parties.
From the year of 1951, Jawaharlal Nehru was the preeminent leader of the party till 1964. K. Kamaraj became the President of the All India Congress committee during the last years of Nehru’s life in 1963. After Nehru’s death, K. Kamaraj was widely considered as a Kingmaker for ensuring the victory of Lal Bahadur Shahstri over Morarji Desai.
After Shastri’s death, Indira Gandhi was elected as a leader of the party and she remained the second longest-serving Prime Minister of India till 31st October 1984, at the time of Operation Blues Star. After that Rajiv Gandhi became an ostensible head of Congress and became the Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi was regarded as a delicate, he consulted other party members and avoided rapid decisions patterns. Before Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination, P.V. Narasimha Rao elected as a Prime Minister in June 1991, he was known as the “Father of Indian Economic Reforms”, and after him, Manmohan Singh continued the Rao Government’s economic reforms policies. Sonia Gandhi strived to encourage the party in her early years as its President. Then Manmohan Singh was elected as a Prime Minister of India until BJP came into the power in the year of 2014.