Booth Capturing: Electoral Fraud (2nd Lok Sabha Election)
After the first general elections of Lok Sabha in India, which was completely a new experience for the people of India at that time, Second general elections of Lok Sabha was held after the duration of five years in 1957 from 24th of February to 14th of March. In the second Lok Sabha elections, there were 494 seats elected by using the ‘ first past The Post Voting’ a method which is still practised by most of the countries around the world. In 1957, booth capturing first instance happened. Booth capturing is basically an electoral fraud in which a polling booth can be captured by the loyalists of party. After booth capturing, they vote at the place of legal voters so that their candidate can win. Booth capturing is a type of suppression of voters. Malpractice of booth capturing mainly happens in India. EVM has also been updated to prevent booth capturing but it is still not completely prevented.
Second general elections saw the electoral participation of 55.42% . Although, in 1989, booth capturing became a punishable act under the law of ‘The Representation of People act 1951’, adjourning or countermanding any poll that was captured.
The second general Lok Sabha elections once again proved a promising result for the Indian national Congress under the leadership of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru with 371 seats out of 494 seats, which showed the growth in voting share from 45% in first general Lok Sabha elections to 47 % in the second general Lok Sabha elections. 42 seats with a share of 19% votes were in favour of independent candidates which was the highest in any Lok Sabha elections.
Communist party of India (CPI) which was the major and second biggest party at that time, won 27 seats with a voting share of nearly 9%. PRAJA SOCIALIST PARTY (PSP) had 19 seats with voting share of 10.4% and other like BHARATIYA JANA SANGH had 4 seats with share of 6 % .The rest voting share was nearly minimum. 15 Rajya Sabha members were elected to Lok Sabha after the second general elections in India. M.Ananthasayanam ayyangar was elected as Lok Sabha speaker.